Ecological Sustainability and Urban Green Space

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Urban Density and Green Structure Case Studies

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Ringkøbing Area Resources

Purpose of research

Collecting data

Data on green space in Køge

Green space in Ringkøbing

Conclusions

References

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RINGKØBING CASE STUDY - AREA RESOURCES

DATA ON GREENSPACE IN KØGE

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Green space resources in the pilot study in Koege

In the Køge study the field survey, combined with map measurements and statistical information on the household size, was compared with statistical information on the whole town, in order to map the area resources of the different residential categories (fig 1). Note: in the following paragraphs the term "vegetation" is used to cover planting such as trees, shrubs, herbacious plants, and also grass; the term "grass" is used to cover both grass laid as lawns and rough grass left as meadowland.

The single family house properties had an average of 53% vegetation covered area, comprising 60% grass and 40% planted areas, including surrounding hedges. As the general size for single family house properties is between 700 and 1000 sq.m and an average household in Koege comprises less than 2.5 persons, the area resource was considered sufficient in relation to property based use/retainment of biodegradable waste and storm water at the level of the individual property, and no further study on the area resources of this residential category was carried out.

Different residential density types in Køge by surface cover (Fig.1)

Type of Housing

Single

Low density
Flats
Centre

% of total

Built

29%

21%

18(-11)%

42%

% of total

Paved

18%

31%

37(-21)%

33%

Vegetation

53%

48%

45(-68)%

25%

% of total

Non-built

71%

79%

82(-90)%

58%

% of non-built area

Paved

25%

39%

45(-24)%

56%

% of non-built area

Vegetation

75%

61%

55(-76)%

44%

% of vegetation area

Grass

60%

82%

(39)-67%

59%

% of vegetation area

Planted

40%

18%

(61)-33%

41%

Actual vegetation area

Per dwelling

586 sq.m

91 sq.m*

88(-193) sq.m*

97 sq.m*

Actual vegetation area

Per person

293 sq.m

61 sq.m

51(-116) sq.m

51 sq.m

*Statistical data - average for all Køge (other numbers are from case study areas)

(-x) result not used (atypical)

 

 

Figure 1a - Graphs of surface cover by house type

For the 18 low-density structure zones in Koege, discounting the older areas of the town centre, the average part of non-built areas was 83%, comprising 218 sq.m per household/120 sq.m per person. The two developments studied in detail had a non-built area of 79% and so are below but close to the 83% average of all Koege. Not unexpectedly, the vegetation area was less than that of single family house developments (43%/53%), but more surprising was the finding that only 18% of this area is planted. It is less than half of the planted areas of the other three residential area categories. (See Fig 1a).)

For the 14 apartment block structure zones of Koege the statistically-based average part of the non-built area was 89%, comprising 130 sq.m per household/72 sq.m per person. The two developments studied in detail had an average non-built area of 82% and 90% respectively, and so are close to the average. However, the latter development is assumed atypical for apartment blocks (social housing), as the non-built area per person/per household exceeds all other developments in Koege (270 sq.m per household/124 sq.m per person. Based on these figures it is assumed that he vegetation area of 55 % of the non-built area of the first development is a more appropriate assumption for an average apartment block than the 76% of the latter.

The last category studied was the six structure zones of the typical provincial town centre of Koege, which has medieval origins, as has Ringkoebing. The average part of non-built area was 63%, so exceeding the measured 58% of the selected test area. The non-built area comprised 161sq. m per household/120 sq.m per person, which is more than anticipated in this seemingly dense area. The selected test area had a paved area of 33% and a vegetation area of 25% of the total area. The vegetation areas comprised 59% grass and 41% plantings, which in comparison with other residential areas suggests that the smaller the area of open space the more it is used for planting (trees, bushes, flowers), rather than grass.

When comparing these percentages of biologically open, mainly vegetation-covered areas (a few comprise bare soil) with figures estimated by studying plot ratio regulations (Dahl, 1947,p49), the result is that in single family house developments the estimated vegetation area is very different from the actual measurements found in this field study (75% as against 53%). The same is true for low density developments (60% as against 48%). For apartment block developments the vegetation ratio seem to have been greatly underestimated when compared with the results of the field study (20-35% compared with 45%). For central areas the consistancy is, however, fair (30% compared with 25%).

Consequently these findings suggest that using plot ratios as a point of departure for estimating area resources is no substitute for using more exact local statistics derived from GIS or other on-site information.

 

© 1998 Karen Attwell, Danish Building Research Institute, Housing and Urban Planning Research