Working Group 1A - Comparison of Case Studies


Other papers relating to people/ ecology interface





Belgium - benefits for people

Sheffield to do




Ceské Budejovice

Comparison of case studies

UK - benefits of nature

Click button to return to: Click here to return to the Progress Report 2002

Case Study Vienna - Draft 1

The Greenstructure of Vienna

© Eva Erhart, 2002, Ludwig Boltzmann-Institute for Biological Agriculture and Applied Ecology, Vienna



The City of Vienna has 1,615,438 inhabitants and it covers a surface area of 415 km2 within its administrative boundaries. The average gross domestic product (GDP) per capita of Vienna`s inhabitants amounts to 31,800 ¤; the rate of unemployment is 5.3 %. Vienna has 3,268,289 tourist arrivals per year.

Greenspace covers nearly half of the surface area of Vienna, including a broad range of greenstructures, from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, trees and avenues to large historic parks, nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city. Table 1 shows the land use in Vienna, Fig. 1 the distribution of the greenspace in the city.


Fig. 1: Greenspace in Vienna (according to the Realnutzungskartierung 1997; Source: IFF / Social Ecology, MA41, MA21, MA18)

1. How have natural and cultural features influenced the development of greenstructure in the urban environment?


The landscape of Vienna is exceptionally diverse. Vienna is situated at the intersection of different landscape types and climatic regions. From the Wienerwald in the west a series of terraces descends like steps to the Danube, where the center of the city is situated. In the South, Vienna is bounded by the hills of the Wienerberg and the Laaer Berg, and in the North by the Bisamberg. In the Northeast, Vienna extends into the plain of the Marchfeld. Climatically, Vienna is situated in the transition zone between the central european, the pannonic and the alpine climate. Correspondingly, the natural vegetation in Vienna would consist of mixed deciduous forest (mainly beech, maple, oak and hornbeam) in the western part of the city and of pannonic vegetation with dry grassland and oak forests in the east.


Vienna originates in ancient Roman times. In the first century AD the Romans set up a military camp, called Vindobona, which formed part of the large number of similar facilities along the Limes frontier. Around 1150 the Austrian margraves from the Babenberg dynasty transferred their residence to Vienna. In this time Vienna unfolded into a veritable town. By 1500 the city had some 20,000 inhabitants. The medieval town was enclosed by town walls and by the glacis and surrounded by fields, villages, vineyards and woods. The glacis was a spacious meadow area, intended for military defense. A town map of 1547 shows 150 gardens in the inner city, which all have disappeared in the following centuries. Around 1569, the Neugebäude castle and gardens were built in Renaissance style south of the city. They survived the Turkish sieges, after which an immense building activity started in the villages around Vienna. By 1754 the number of inhabitants had increased to 175,000. Many aristocratic families built palais with baroque gardens outside the glacis. One of the largest, which is still preserved in baroque style today, is the Belvedere in the 3rd district. Extensive tree-lined avenues connected the emperor`s castles with the suburbs and the hunting areas. The Schönbrunner Allee, the Hofjagdzeile and the Prater Hauptallee still exist today in the densely built-up city.




The parts of the city originating from the second half of the 19th century are laid out in a dense rectangular pattern of blocks of buildings, streets and places. The few green structures there are courtyards and small parks. Somewhat larger green spaces were laid out in the area of the former second fortification ring, which was transformed into the Gürtel-road.

Population figures continued to rise rapidly. In 1880, the city had 726,000 inhabitants, by 1890 their number had grown to 1,365,000 as a result of the incorporation of suburbs. The rapid expansion of the city also endangered the Wienerwald, which had been administered by the court until then. Josef Schöffel, the mayor of Mödling, started a campaign to save the Wienerwald. In 1905 the Wienerwald was made to a protected green zone by decree of the Vienna City Council. By 1910 the city reached the highest population figures in its history with 2,031,000 through the massive immigration into the capital of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. After WWI, the pressure of the huge and poor population led to a boom in allotment gardens in many parts of the city. Between WWI and WWII, public parks were created in the outlying districts. In 1954, the boundaries of the city were changed for the last time. In the 1950s to 1970s, the large forest areas of the Lobau, the Bisamberg and the Lainzer Tiergarten were made accessible for the Viennese people. The aim of the city politics was to keep a belt of green space around the built-up area of Vienna. Large parks were created in the 22nd and 23rd district. In the 1970s, the hydraulic regulation of the Danube was reformed thoroughly. In the place of the former flood-plain zone, a wide strip of riverfront on the northern bank of the Danube, which was flooded periodically when the Danube had high-water, a by-pass channel for the Danube was excavated, which now takes up the masses of excess water when the Danube is in flood , and a long-stretched man-made island, the Danube Island created between Danube and the by-pass channel. The Danube Island opened an entirely new recreation area for the urban population.

The Lobau, a large (2,900 ha) natural riverside forest on the south-eastern bank of the Danube, was made a nature reserve in 1978. In 1996, it was declared a national park together with the adjacent riverside forests in Lower Austria, which stretch along the Danube to the Slovakian border (total: 9,300 ha).

Sources: Auböck and Ruland, 1994; Opll (



Today, green spaces cover 49 % of the city surface in Vienna, compared to 33 % of built-up area and 14 % traffic area (Table 1). More than one third of the green space is covered by forests, another third is farmland (arable land, horticultural land and vineyards) and 11 % are meadows (mainly on the Danube Island and in the Wienerwald). These meadows are not in intensive agricultural use, but rather are recreation areas. Only 5 % of the green space are parks (Table 2).

Table 2: Categories of green space in Vienna (MA 41, Realnutzungskartierung 1997; Bearb.: MA 21, MA 18)

The greatest part of the agricultural area is intensively used arable land on the urban fringe. In the past decades the arable land was cleared from many of the hedges, shrubs and trees on the field margins, so that it is a rather monotonous landscape, which is unsatisfactory both regarding agroecology and nature conservation and regarding recreational use (Maurer et al., 2000).

Around 20 % of the horticultural area is built up with greenhouses, so that many horticultural holdings more and more resemble business areas and no longer are open, green spaces.

Viticulture has a very long tradition in Vienna, which goes back to the ancient Romans. No other city in the world has larger vineyards within its boundaries than Vienna. The vineyards and wine-growers` villages on the southern slopes of the hills around Vienna were incorporated into the growing city. Viticulture is an important economic factor for Vienna. The „Heurigen", small, privately run wine taverns, are a typical Viennese institution. The cultural landscapes of the vineyards and the former wine growers` villages are popular recreation areas.

Agricultural land is the main resource of space for the growth of the city. Since the 1950s, agriculture has lost more than a quarter of its area in favour of other land uses. Since 1985, the area of agricultural land has decreased for 15 %. Two thirds of the former agricultural area were changed into forests and parks, one third was built up.

On the other hand, there is the desire to keep and preserve some agricultural areas within the city borders. How this goal can be achieved, as well as the role of agriculture in Vienna on the whole, is subject of discussion at present.

2. What does this greenstructure mean for biodiversity, environmental services and management of flows?



The flora of the city of Vienna, comprising 2187 wild plant species and subspecies altogether, can be considered very rich in species. The species richness is mainly due to the location of Vienna within the border region of several big floral regions (Central European, Alpic, Pontic, Pannonian and Submediterranean) comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas (natural forests, wetlands along the Danube, formerly extensively used steppe pastures) as well as arable land, meadows and artificial forests. In addition to that, man-made sites typical for large cities, like ruderal vegetation, waste places, settlement areas, traffic areas (railways, docks, streets, channels) and industrial fallow areas (including trade and business places) play an important role.


Out of a total of 2187 species, 1596 (73 %) belong to Vienna`s indigenous flora, 591 (27 %) species, are ± naturalized immigrants introduced on purpose or unintentional.

742 species of the Viennese flora (i. e. 34 % of the total) were classified as being endangered (Red List; neophytes not considered). A first coordination of the endangered species to their typical habitats shows that the majority of the more severely endangered species are not part of the natural ecosystems (like forests, thus maintaining some equilibrium by self-regulation), but live in habitats extensively altered and influenced by man (Müllner et al.).


58 species of mammals are living currently in Vienna. Most of them (40 species) are protected by the nature conservation law. Species which inhabit natural woods, river banks, dry grassland or other well-structured landscapes are endangered, because these types of biotopes are diminishing and the remaining biotopes are often isolated. A second reason for the endangering of many species is the use of pesticides (Sieber and Ulbel, 1998).


Two thirds of the 134 species of butterflies living in Vienna are found on the Red List. Most of them, and also most of the endangered butterfly species, are living in dry grassland. Other important biotopes for butterflies in Vienna are woods, rough pastures and moist meadows. Dry grassland and rough pastures are also the most important biotopes for the grasshoppers, which comprise 72 species in Vienna (Höttinger, 1998; Berg et al., 1998).


Management of flows:

About one quarter of the green area in Vienna is in agricultural use. Approx. 850 ha of the agricultural area belong to Vienna`s municipal estates, the remnants of the former imperial estates. In order to realize closed ecological cycles of nutrient flows in at least a part of waste management, a special model for biowaste treatment and use was developed. Since 1988, the organic fraction of household waste is collected separately in Vienna, and transformed in an open windrow composting process under permanent quality control into a compost, which conforms to high standards (quality class A and A+ according to the Austrian compost regulation). The largest part of the compost is used in agriculture on the municipal agricultural estates. This made it possible that a part of the estates could change over to organic farming (


3. How are the ecological and environmental functions of greenstructure considered in land use / landscape planning? How are the functions being managed to meet ecological and environmental goals?


The formal planning instruments in Vienna are the building regulations and the comprehensive community development plan and the legally binding land-use plan. The two plans are amalgamated into one document. Vienna does not have a regional planning law, so the regulations for city planning are to be found in the building regulations.


The building regulations mention some goals for greenspace planning, such as to make provisions for recreational green areas and water bodies, particularly in the green belt, and conservation of green areas such as the Prater, the Lobau and the Alte Donau, and the protection of the Wienerwald.

Some details regarding greenspace are also laid down in the building regulations, such as on which share of a construction site vegetation is to be established and trees are to be planted.


The community development plan and the land-use plan provide detailed guidance for the future pattern of land use in an area by ascribing the area to a certain zone. There are four kinds of zones: green space, building areas, traffic areas and special areas. The green space comprises rural areas, recreational areas, cemeteries and protected areas.


Vienna`s nature conservation law provides several categories with varying degrees of protection: National parks, wilderness areas, nature reserves, protected landscapes, protected landscape sectors, area for ecological development and natural monument.


Vienna`s tree preservation law protects trees with a trunk circumference of more than 40 cm, with the exception of trees in forests, tree nurseries, allotment gardens, in agricultural areas and fruit trees. Felling of protected trees requires the permission of the authorities. Trees in forests are subject to the forestry law.


Informal planning instruments, which are not established in law, are the Urban Development Plan 94 (Stadtentwicklungsplan 94, STEP 94), the plan Greenbelt Vienna 1995 and the Strategy Plan for Vienna.


The Urban Development Plan 94 is based on a resolution of the City Council. It provides a guideline framework for the desired land development. The STEP 94 defines 11 growth axes, along which the city expansion should take place. Between the growth axes, large green areas, which are connected into a web of greenstructures, should be preserved. In order to implement the ideas of the STEP 94, a number of more detailed plans for the greenstructures were elaborated. The plan Greenbelt Vienna 1995 shows the network of green areas, which should form a belt around the built-up area of the city. These green areas comprise the Wienerwald, the vineyards of the Bisamberg, the old railway station Breitenlee and parts of the former airport Aspern, the Lobau National park, the Prater, the main cemetery, the agricultural areas in the south of Vienna and the Wienerberg. These green areas are linked by green corridors and by areas in agricultural use. The plan does not comprise small green structures such as private gardens or allotment gardens.




Fig. 6: Greenbelt Vienna 1995 (greenbelt in black).



The following measures are planned to be taken in order to protect the green areas mentioned in the plan Greenbelt Vienna 1995. Ascribing green areas to „protected zones in the greenbelt", laid down in the community development plan / land-use plan is the best possible protection. In such a zone, no building activities are allowed. At present, only a part of the designated greenbelt is ascribed to „protected zones in the greenbelt". Large areas are ascribed to „rural areas", in which certain building activities are allowed. There is a high pressure to change the ascribed pattern of land use in the community development plan / land use plan of some of these areas into building areas or into allotment gardens. Green areas may also be protected following the nature conservation law. A third possibility to protect the areas of the greenbelt is to develop them into woods or parks. As trees are protected by the tree preservation law, such areas become protected greenspaces. This measure is used extensively. Furthermore, it was intended that the City Council should protect some areas by purchasing them, which has been realized in a few cases.


The Strategy Plan for Vienna (1999) also calls for the realization of the Greenbelt 95. It names the measures to be taken &endash; protection in the community development plan / land use plan, protection by nature conservation law, protection by afforestation and purchase by the City &endash; and in addition to that it names the persons responsible for the implementation. It also calls for the provision of public and additional private funding for purchasing and developing of greenstructures. The maintenance of the cultivated landscape by farmers is mentioned as an essential input.



4. What is presently recorded about ecology in the case study area, by whom, and how?


The Municipal Department for Nature Conservation (MA 22), has commissioned numerous studies on environmental and ecological aspects of the city. Biotope mapping studies in the built-up areas were conducted in the late 1980s (Punz, 1990). Habitat surveys covered vegetation (Müllner et al., 1998, Grass, 1995) and important groups of fauna, such as mammals (Sieber and Ulbel, 1998), birds (Donnerbaum and Wichmann, 2001), reptiles (Schedl and Klepsch, 1999a), lizards (Schedl and Klepsch, 1999b), beetles (Zabransky, 1999), butterflies (Höttinger, 1998) and grasshoppers (Berg et al., 1998). A nature conservation strategy for Vienna (Kutzenberger, 1994a) and concepts for the conservation of species and their habitats (Kutzenberger, 1994b) were drawn up.


Several studies dealt with specific problems, such as the impact of streets on the fauna (Glitzner, 1998) and the protection of birds in the vicinity of wind energy plants (Sachslehner and Kollar, 1997).

The air quality in Vienna is subject to continuous monitoring by the MA 22 at 18 measuring sites ( The heavy metal content of soils in parks and along traffic routes is also monitored by the MA 22 laboratory every second year.


In the 1990s, a biotope monitoring study was conducted using aerial infrared photography. This technique is economical and makes it possible to repeat the monitoring after few years (1991 &endash; 1997 &endash; 2000). Infrared photos of the total city area were analyzed in detail for the greenstructures and the results were included via GIS in the digital city map. The infrared photos were also used to assess the percentage of damaged trees in Vienna (Kellner et al., 1999).


In a study titled „Ecological-functional types of structures", the total area of the city was differentiated according to ecological-functional criteria and was allocated to one of eight ecological-functional types: densely built-up housing/mixed areas with low ecological/recreational potential, densely built-up housing/mixed areas with an ecological/recreational potential that can be expanded, areas with family houses, parks and large recreational areas, uncultivated land, agricultural areas, areas covered by (mainly) woods, other areas. These ecological-functional structure types were the basis for a first proposal for differential conservation and development measures (Brandenburg et al., 1994).


Energy, material (in particular carbon) and water balances for anthropogenic and natural flows were calculated by Punz et al. (1996), Dörflinger et al. (1996), Maier et al. (1997) and Brunner et al. (1996). For Vienna`s agriculture, nutrient balances were calculated for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (Erhart et al., 2001) and suggestions for improving the nutrient balances were made (Hartl and Erhart, 2001).


The status of agriculture in Vienna today from the ecological, economical, social and planning point of view was evaluated and options for its future development were worked out (Maurer et al., 2000, 2001).

5. How have ecological goals been set out to influence the planning, design and management processes? Is there any evidence that these goals have effectively influenced the planning processes within the study area?



The Urban Development Plan 94 (STEP 94) and the plan Greenbelt Vienna 1995 provide guidelines, how and where to preserve and extend the green space in Vienna. Since 1995, the areas Bisamberg (275 ha) and Flugfeld Aspern (35 ha) in the north of Vienna and the Goldberg (270 ha), a refuge for endangered plant and animal species in the south of Vienna, have been preserved by ascribing them to „protected zones in the greenbelt" in the community development plan / land use plan. Further areas are being protected by developing them into forests or parks. In the last 10 years, 60 ha of „young citizens forest" were planted in the framework of an annual celebration, in which the 18-year-old citizens are allowed to plant a tree with their own hands.

The pressure for enlargement of industrial and traffic areas, however, poses great challenges for the closing of the greenbelt in Vienna, particularly in the south of the city.


A new instrument to take environmental aspects into account in city planning is the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The SEA aims at identifying, at a strategic level, the environmental consequences of a proposed policy, plan or programme, in order to ensure that they are fully included and appropriately addressed at the earliest stage of decision-making on par with economic and social considerations. SEA involves planners, policy-makers, stakeholders and the wider public in an active, participatory and educational process. At the moment, a SEA is conducted for the area in the North East of Vienna, which is to be developed in the next years (


The Local Agenda 21 was started as a platform for sustainable district development and citizen participation in the fields of ecology, social affairs and economy in Vienna`s 9th district. In the framework of the Local Agenda 21 citizens also participate in the process of developing green spaces in their district (


First steps to implement the nature conservation strategy for Vienna and the programmes for the conservation of important species and their habitats are taken on district level. The programme „Network Nature" was started in the 17th district. Natural vegetation structures are promoted by reduced care of greenspaces, planting of plants appropriate to the site, opening up of previously sealed surfaces; habitats for wild bees, bats and birds are created (


The biotope monitoring study showed that courtyards make up a significant portion &endash; approx. 40 % - of inner-city green areas. Most courtyards are privately owned. The municipal government encourages residents to create small green oases in courtyards, which had sealed surfaces before and were used as parking lots. On average, sixty to seventy courtyard projects are subsidized per year.


In the framework of „Eco-friendly purchasing Vienna" (ÖkoKauf Wien), an initiative of the city, which aspires that in all purchases of the municipal departments of the city (amounting to a total volume of 4 billion Euro per year) ecological criteria should be considered, a working group „building" was set up. This working group is preparing a set of ecological criteria for materials and services (e. g. planning) which are purchased or ordered by the City of Vienna. These sets of ecological criteria for planning will be used in every tendering later (;


The city`s bicycle path extension programme aims at creating a tightly-knit system of bicycle paths, which provides useful routes for every-day trips, but also good connections to the recreation areas. In 2000, Vienna had 800 km of bicycle paths. Another 173 km, mainly connecting existing routes, are planned for the next five years. Bicycle paths and public transport connect the Danube Island, a new green space which was created in the 1970s, with the city, reducing vehicle traffic to and from this popular recreation area.


First steps towards the implementation of ecological goals in agriculture were taken by the municipal estates. Since 1985, fifty km of windbreak hedges, which reduce wind erosion and provide habitats for many species, were planted on farmland in the northeast and the south of Vienna.

„Eco-food" is a programme which aims at increasing the use of organically-grown foodstuffs to 30 % at the City`s institutions, such as kindergartens, schools, hospitals and old people`s homes. This gives Viennese farmers the opportunity to change over to organic farming with good sales prospects for their products.

Since 2001, private farmers may contract voluntarily with the Municipal Department for Nature Conservation for taking farmland out of cultivation and converting it into nature conservation areas by appropriate management measures. The contract grants the farmer a compensation subsidy (Contracted Nature Conservation-Programme „Biotope Farmland"; Maurer et al., 2001).



Auböck M., Ruland G. (1994): Grün in Wien. Falter Verlag, Wien.


Berg H.-M., Karner-Ranner E., Ranner A., Zuna-Kratky T. (1998): Die Heuschrecken- und Fangschreckenfauna Wiens. Artenportraits. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Brandenburg C., Dirr U., Linzer H., Mayerhofer R., Moser F., Schacht H., Voigt A., Walchhofer H. P. (1994): Stadt-ökologische Funktionstypen. Projektbericht, Wien.


Brunner P. H., Daxbeck H., Lampert C., Morf L., Obernosterer R., Rechberger H., Reiner I. (1996): Der anthropogene Stoffhaushalt der Stadt Wien, Stoffbilanzen. Wiss. Berichte, Wiener Internationale Zukunftskonferenz, Bd. 14, Wien.


Donnerbaum K., Wichmann G. (2001): Bestandserhebung der Wiener Brutvögel. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Dörflinger A., Hietz P., Maier R., Punz W. (1996): Der Kohlenstoffhaushalt einer Stadt am Beispiel Wien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der pflanzlichen Biomasse und der Nettoprimärproduktion. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Österr. 133: 41-76.


Erhart E., Forster A., Hartl W. (2001): Agriculture in Vienna - nutrient balances. Paper presented at NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists) Seminar No. 327 „Urban areas - rural areas and recycling - the organic way forward?", August 20-21, 2001, Copenhagen.


Fischer F. (1971): Entwicklung der Grünflächen in Wien.


Glitzner I. (1998): Literaturstudie zu anlage- und betriebsbedingten Auswirkungen von Straßen auf die Tierwelt. Studie im Auftrag der MA22. Endbericht.


Grass V. (1995): Katalog der „Prioritären" und „Streng geschützten" Pflanzenarten des Arten- und Lebensraumschutzprogrammes der Stadt Wien. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Hartl W., Erhart E. (2001): Improving the nutrient balance of Vienna`s agriculture through compost use - a scenario. Paper presented at NJF (Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists) Seminar No. 327 „Urban areas - rural areas and recycling - the organic way forward?", August 20-21, 2001, Copenhagen.


Höttinger H. (1998): Die Tagschmetterlinge der Stadt Wien. Artenportraits. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Kellner K., Pillmann W., Sprinzl G., Weidenhofer R. (1999): BiotopMonitoring Wien. Komplettdaten über die Vegetationsausstattung Wiens &endash; flächendeckende Ersterfassung aller Grünflächen im dichtverbauten und periurbanen Raum. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Kutzenberger H. (1994a): Naturschutzstrategien für die Stadt: Teil I &endash; Eine Naturschutzstrategie für die Stadt Wien. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Kutzenberger H. (1994b): Naturschutzstrategien für die Stadt: Teil II &endash; Konzept für ein Arten- und Lebensraumschutzprogramm Stadt Wien. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Maier R., Punz W., Dörflinger A., Eisinger K., Fussenegger K., Geisler A., Gergelyfi H. (1997): Der natürliche Stoffhaushalt als Grundlage einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung Wiens. Verl. d. Zoologisch-Botanischen Ges. Österr., Wien.


Maurer L., Kromp B., Schmid R., Kraus P., Meindl P. (2001): Viennese programme of contracted nature conservation „Biotope farmland": Evaluation continued and implementation of the initial phase of the programme after recognition by the EC. Research project in behalf of the MA22 (MA22 &endash; 1033-2001).


Maurer L., Meindl P., Erhart E., Forster A., Hartl W., Kienegger M., Kromp B., Weber G., Auer N., Meyer-Cech K., Seher W., Zeiner S., Hüttler W., Fischer-Kowalski M., Nicolini M., Gindl M., Krausmann F., Blaas W., Stoiss C. (2002): Optionen für die Entwicklung von Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau in Wien. Endbericht. Im Auftrag von Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Verkehr und Magistratsabteilung 22 - Umweltschutz.


Maurer L., Meindl P., Erhart E., Forster A., Hartl W., Kienegger M., Kromp B., Weber G., Auer N., Meyer-Cech K., Seher W., Hüttler W., Fischer-Kowalski M., Nicolini M., Amann C., Gindl M., Krausmann F., Blaas W., Stoiss C. (2000): Optionen für die Entwicklung von Landwirtschaft und Gartenbau in Wien. 1. Zwischenbericht - Darstellung des Status Quo. Im Auftrag von Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Verkehr und Magistratsabteilung 22 - Umweltschutz.


Müllner A., Adler W., Mrkvicka A. (2000): Datenbank zu Gefährdung und Verbreitung der Gefäßpflanzen Wiens. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Punz W. (1990): Die Biotopkartierung im bebauten Gebiet. In: BLUBB (Biotope Landschaften Utopien Bewußt Erleben), Ausstellung zur Wiener Biotopkartierung 1990. Katalog zur Ausstellung. PID Wien 1990: 164-166.


Punz W., Maier R., Hietz P., Dörflinger A. (1996): Der Energie- und Stoffhaushalt Wiens. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Österr. 133: 27-39.


Sachslehner L., Kollar H. P. (1997): Vogelschutz und Windkraftanlagen in Wien. Studie im Auftrag der MA22. Endbericht.


Schedl H., Klepsch R. (1999a): Die Reptilienfauna Wiens. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Schedl H., Klepsch R. (1999b): Bericht über die Artenkartierung und Grundlagenerhebung zum Wiener Arten- und Lebensraumschutzprogramm (ALSP) &endash; Smaragdeidechse (Lacerta viridis). Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Sieber J., Ulbel G. (1998): Geschützte Säugetierarten (ohne Fledermäuse) in Wien. Artenportraits. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Zabransky P. (1999): Artenportraits der in Wien streng geschützten Käferarten. Studie im Auftrag der MA22.


Working Group 1A - Comparison of Case Studies


Other papers relating to people/ ecology interface





Belgium - benefits for people

Sheffield to do




Ceské Budejovice

Comparison of case studies

UK - benefits of nature

Click button to return to:

updated July 2003