European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research -
COST Action C11
COST Action C11
1) Overview: action identification datas
- first proposal: march 1998
- technical committee: June 1999
- approval : February 2000
- first meeting: September 2000
- duration : 48 months
- prolongation agreed in 2003: 6 month
- end of the action: March 2005
- signatures: 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France,ÝÝÝ Germany, Italy, Lithuania, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom, Czech Republic.
-Ý Chairperson: Mr Bernard Duhem,
Direction de la recherche ( DRAST)
MinistËre de líEquipement, 92055 Paris La DÈfense cedex 04,
The main objective of the action is to reach a better understanding of the role played by planning, design and management in the interactions between green and built-up areas, improving the way green areas contribute to the quality of life of urban citizen, to the quality of habitats as a basis for biodiversity and to other aspects of sustainable urban development.
This topic ì Green-structure and urban planningî appeared as an important one in the general debate about the diverse impacts of urban sprawl. The contradictions between the advantages of compact cities and the needs and demands for space and nature, make necessary to improve knowledge and practices about relationships between open and built-up areas. Unless the situations are very diverse in different countries and cities of Europe, the topic is on the agendas quite everywhere, which guaranties interesting exchanges of research results and case studies.
This topic needs a multidisciplinary approach, due to the diverse qualities and uses of green-structures, for human leisure, habitats for plants and animals, microclimate conditions, flows control, space organisation..
The COST proposal was prepared by a network which was set up in 1995 and met then once a year to exchange research results about ìUrban density and green-structureî. The network included the following countries: The Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, France, The United Kingdom.
The memorandum for understanding ì Green structure and urban planningî raised 5 topics: communication, skills, power relationships, green belts and corridors, water management. During the first meeting in Brussels ( September 2000), additional topics were suggested, and the structuration for work was decided during the second meeting in Sheffield December 2000:
- during the first two years, problem analyses and states of art will be conducted inside three working groups dealing with ecological issues and qualities, human issues and qualities, policy instruments.
- during the last two years, the work will be dedicated to guidelines for policies and design, and case studies comparisons.
The third meeting was held in Marseille in may 2001 and was the occasion for a first meeting of the working groups and an open seminar with local researchers and practitioners.
The fourth, fifth and sixth meetings of the management committee and working groups were held in Breda ( The Netherlands, November 2001), Munich (Germany, June 2002), and Milano ( Italy, October 2002). Following meetings were planned, in Warsaw (June 2003), Rome (September 2003) and Oslo (spring 2004), but the administrative reorganisation of COST will probably lead to different dates.
The following countries have signed the memorandum for understanding and their delegates to the management committee are:
Austria: Mr.Hermann Knoflacher, Mr.Klaus Wagner,
Belgium: Mr.Philippe Hanocq, Ms.Ann Van Herzele
Denmark: Ms.Karen Attwell, Mr.Ulrik Reeh
Finland: Mr.Matti Eronen, Mr.Kimmo Lapintie
France: Mr.Bernard Duhem, Ms.Ann Caroll Werquin
Germany: Ms.Bettina Opperman, Mr.Stephan Pauleit
Italy: Mr.Antonio Acuto, Ms.Lucia Martincigh
Lithuania: Mr.Giedrius Daniulaitis, Mr.Kestutis Zaleckis,
The Netherlands: Mr.Peter Schildwacht, Ms. Marleen Van den Top
Norway: Ms.Unn Ellefsen, Mr.Karsten Jorgensen
Poland: Ms.Ewa Kaliszuk, Ms.Barbara Szulczewska
Spain: Ms.Marta Garcia Nart, Mr.Jorge Martinez Chapa
Sweden: Ms.Kristina Bjrnberg, Mr.Bjrn Malbert
United Kingdom: Ms.Anne Beer, Ms.Carolyn Harrison
Czech Republic: Ms Irena Hanouskova
chairperson : Mr.Bernard Duhem, France
vice chairperson: Ms.Unn Ellefsen, Norway
Working groups members:
Mr.Jean-Marie Halleux (Belgium)
Mr.Olli Maijala (Finland)
Ms.Carmen Aalber, Mr.Sybrand Tjallingii (The Netherlands)
Mr.Giovanni Scudo (Italy)
Mr.Erik Plathe (Norway)
Ms.Gunilla Lindholm (Sweden)
Mr Carlo BLASI (Italy)
Ms Signe NYHUUS (Norway)
Ms.Suzanne Guldager (Denmark);
Mr.Maurizio Merigi ( Italy);
Ms Eva Erhart( Austria);
Ms.Inkeri Vaha-Piikkio (Finland)
Simone Tiedtke (Germany)
. Federal Institute of Agricultural Economics, Vienna, Austria
. City of Vienna, Austria
. University of Liege, Belgium
. Free University Brussels, Belgium
. Danish Building Research institute, Horsholm, Denmark
. Danish Forest and Landscape Research Centre, Horsholm, Denmark
. City of Helsinki, Finland
. Helsinki University of Technology, Finland
. Ministry for Infrastructure, Transportation and Housing, Paris, France
. Thales consultancy, Paris, France
. National School for Landscape Architecture, Marseille, France
. University of Hannover, Germany
. Munich Technical University, Germany
. University of Manchester, United Kingdom
. Politechnicum of Milan, Italy
. Faculty of Civil Architecture of Milan, Italy
. University of Rome Tre, Italy
. Institute ofÝ Architecture and Construction, Kaunas, Lithuania
. City of Utrecht, The Netherlands
. Alterra, Green World Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands
. Ministry for the Environment, Oslo, Norway
. Municipality of Oslo
. Agriculture University in Warsaw, Poland
. Institut for Building Sciences, Madrid, Spain
. Ministry for Public Works, Madrid, Spain
. Ministry for Developpement, Madrid, Spain
. Swedish Council For Building Research, Stockholm, Sweden
. Swedish University of agricultural sciences, Alnarp, Sweden
. Chalmers University, Goteborg, Sweden
. Map21 Ltd, environmental consultants, Sheffield, United Kingdom
Brussels, September 2000,14-15 : management committee
Sheffield, December 2000, 3-4-5: management committee
Marseille, May 2001, 19-20-21: management committee and working groups
Breda, December 2001, 18-19-20: management committee and working groups
Munich, June 2002, 6-9, management committee and working groups
Milan, October 2002, 5-8, management committee and working groups
(see agendas in annexe 1)
6. Activities and results
At the end of 2002, the Action is half-way. The first year was mainly used to organise the work and agree for a common understanding of the topic, definitions and objectives (see below: ìdefinitions and bibliographyî). The second year was quite productive in basic materials, case studies, description of planning systems, thematic papers (see below:îthematic papersî). Each meeting (management committee and working groups) was an opportunity for technical visits and open seminars with local experts (see below: ìknowledge about greenstructure in..î).
- definitions and bibliography:
The glossary, filled by a wide number of members, brought some enlightments about the objectives of the action while giving definitions for green structures, green-spaces and Green-structure planning.
Green-structure is not a familiar word in most countries, however an agreement emerge, to say green-structure is concerned with a functioning related to the quality of life of urban dwellers, also a "green" way in urban planning and in organising the city (valuing green resources), it concerns the organisational aspects of a city's green-spaces, being more than a matrix of these green-spaces even enlarged to all open spaces , greened, paved-places, Ö but being a general concept and a change in scale, making the concept able to address the challenges nowadays cities (compact city and disperse suburban growth) are facing : fragmentation, lack of identity, pressures and space consumption, recreational needs, mesoclimate and water management, Ö.
With the level of green-structure an ambition is on, especially when this concept meet the field "urban planning". There is, in almost all countries, a noticeable lack of planning theory in relation to the overall role of green-space in cities and a lack of discussion about how a proper consideration and understanding of the function of green-spaces might influence the spatial planning of urban areas, but there are experiences within different cities having used these opportunities and developing conceptual tools and operational methods. The knowledge gathered from these approaches of an active relation between green-structure planning and the functioning of the city is to be gathered, exchanged and assess within the time of the action.
A bibliography can be seen on the website; it will be completed and organised later on.
- knowledge about green-structure in meeting places : see annexe 2.
- working groups papers: see annexe 3.
2003 will be a turning point in the Actionís work. The analytical materials can be considered as produced or collected. The synthesis of them is now to be elaborated by each working group and discussed in the management committee in order to find the global results of the Action.
7. Dissemination of results
This matter is up in the agenda for 2003. As a result of first discussions, an idea would be to produce a synthetic book with the global results and short description of the green structure issues in the planning of some cities (mainly those were meetings were held). In addition, each working group would choose the proper way to disseminate its more precise results (publication or articles).
8. Short term scientific mission
No mission for these two first years.
9. Economic dimension
In the memorandum for understanding the cost of the activities to be carried out under the Action was estimated at roughly 9 million at 1998 price, based on the participation of 9 countries already interested at that time.
The total of person-year involved was expected to be from 75 to 90 researchers.
management committee meeting agendas
Annexe 1.1. First meeting, Brussels, September 2000, 14-15
first ideas for topics
Topics in the memorandum for understanding
Communication (cf. GREENSCOM)
Professions (cf. meeting Helsinki)
Green ways and green belts
Topics listed in Brussels
Participatory mapping (cf. communication)
Implementation of knowledge
Spatial concepts for green-structure (includes green belts and green ways)
Private spaces/public spaces
Cultural heritage, identity
Rehabilitation, transformation, maintenance, management
Environmental performance or benefits: organic waste treatment, habitats...
Green-structure and intensive use of space/density
The actual green-structure (including commercial areas)
Multi-functions (human uses, comfort, attractiveness, an interesting city)
Glossary (green-structure in first)
States of art (thematic and in case studies) and knowledge missing
Concentrated or dispersed case study across the topicsÝ?
Sheffield has a very rich green structure. The green belt is protected since 1947, has supported a policy of ìurban compactionî andÝ played a important regional role ; part of it has been incorporated in the Peak National Park, one of the most important in England; districts of villas as Ranmoor/Broomhill, from the second part of the nineteenth century, have a lot of vegetation, unless a process of densification not always as carefull as suitable; old industrial valleys are now large green corridors( Rivelin Valley); and even small, gardens in districts of social single houses contribute in greening the city.
Sheffield has so rich a green structure than problems of maintenance have appeared and leaded to innovative practices. The botanic garden was almost abandoned during the sub-urbanisation period and inhabitants had to react strongly; the garden was classified in the ì Heritage park conservationî and is being restaured with funds from the National Loteryî. In the industrial district of Stocksbridge, many activities related to the green-stucture are impulsed by the Stocksbridge Training and Enterprise Partnership, an association originally dedicated to social and educational problems.
Sunday, December 3rd, 2000, from 9 a.m.:
1. Welcoming of participants
2. Presentation of the new delegates
3. Approval of the agenda
4. Site visits and Presentation of case studies in the Sheffield area.
The tour included a wide range of green spaces, from the highly designed formal parks to the mass of green space which is in effect space left over after planning . (There is so much of it that Sheffield City cannot afford to look after it adequately!)
Ranmoor / Broomhill Victorian suburbia - densification and mature tree loss - the link to the Sheffield biodiversity in urban gardens research project.
Heritage park conservation (Botanical Gardens founded 1833) - lottery funding and ongoing maintenance issues of the present scheme.
Sheffield's Valley Greenways and the city's industrial heritage (Endcliffe Park founded in 1890, Bingham Park, Rivelin Valley walk) - community involvement in regeneration and maintenance of a historic urban green space.
The green space management and maintenance work carried out by the STEP Community Centre at Stocksbridge. Community regeneration and green space issues in a poor industrial community (Stocksbridge and the Steel Valley project) an overview of the green space and natural environment initiatives - community involvement and funding.
Presentation : Community forests and countryside (South Yorkshire Forest and the Sheffield reservoirs) - the changing farming, water conservation and moorland landscapes of the urban fringe and the management issues involved.
Regeneration of Sheffield City centre (a walk through the city centre and its public greenÝ spaces, including the Peace Gardens, Tudor Square, Devonshire Green.
Monday, December 4th, 9 a.m.- 6 p.m.
5. Approval of the minutes of the 1st MC meeting in Brussels (14-15/10/00)
6. Report from the Chairman (Bernard Duhem)
7. Report from the Secretariat (Franck Charmaison)
8.Working plan for the implementation of COST Action C11 in 2001
9. GIS applications in Sheffield
10. Short Term Scientific missions (Peter Schildwacht)
11. Update on the "tasks" defined in Brussels
Tuesday, December 5th, 9 a.m.-1 p.m.
12.Update on the "tasks" defined in Brussels (contd.)
13. Website of COST C11 (Anne Beer)
14. Any other business
Marseille is a very different case. First of all, due to the seashore position and to a rocky coast, the green-structure is also a blue and white one, from a social point of view (leisure on the sea, on the hills, on the cliffs) as from a landscape one. Second due to the general traditional Mediterranean carracter of the grey city (the dense part from the first roman to the nineteenth), which is there surrounded by a ìgreen cityî developed from the middle nineteenth to the middle twentieth, as nice combination of agriculture and residences. The northern part of this landscape heritage has much suffered in the last decades, due to major infrastructures and social housing heavy buildings. The southern part, socially richer and less under the pressure of traffic flows from the north, has much more resisted. An important issue of the urban development today is to care to what is left of this heritage, but still to face the need of houses not too far from the city core. Marseille also showed the important role of roads, oftenÝ negative but sometimes a positive one in framing and greening the city (avenue du Prado).
Two topics were raised there for the networkís work: the evolution of uses between proximity( gardens) and distance( hills); and the green solutions for the large social districts, which most of the cities have not found yet.
Sunday, May 20
8.00 am/6.00 pm : Visit, comments by Christian Tamisier (english translation by Anne Lowell)
The harbour, the view from the church Notre-Dame de la Garde, the sea-shore drive and the Prado beaches, the coves (les ´ÝCalanquesÝª), lunch in Park PastrÈ, going through the dense part of the town, going through social estates, the Marseille's water-feeder, visiting typical country mansions of Marseille and their estates (´Ýthe green cityÝª on the civil parish, suburb and countryside) : le Merlan, Bastide Montgolfier, commercial supermarket "Grand Littoral, Hano garden, industrial harbour under transformation and back to the city center.
Monday, MayÝ 21
9.00-10.00Ý Management committee meeting
1. Presentation of new delegates and experts
2. Approval of the minutes of the 2nd MC meeting in Sheffield
3. Report of the Chairman (Bernard Duhem)
4. Report of the Secretariat (Franck Charmaison)
5. Monitoring of the cost Action C11 (Jacques Laravoire)
6.Working groups organization
Open seminar about Marseille
10.15 : General introduction : B. Duhem, AC Werquin
10.30 : Site presentation : C. Tamisier
11.00 : City and nature : an historical perspective in Marseille :Ý M.Roncayolo
11.45 : Green, white and blue structure : contemporary uses of nature : G. Demouchy
2.00 Landscape heritage and urban planning : B. Guillemin
3.00 Master plan and green structure : J. Bonnier
3.45 Planning tools and metropolitan issues : E. Perreau
5 pm :End of the seminar
5.30 pm-7pm: Working groups, 1st sessionÝ 1A + 1B , 2
Tuesday, may 22
9.00-11.00 Working groups, 2nd session
11.00-13.00 Management committee resumes
Synthesis of the sessions of the WGs
Needs for other experts
Short term scientific missions (Peter Schildwacht)
Website of COST C11 (Anne Beer)
Any other business
Sunday, November 18
9 am/6 pm : Visits with persons from the municipality and Sjef Langeveld : Haagse Beemden, landscape included planning in the 70s, 80s and 90s (Landgoederenzone, Asterd, Kroten, Hoge Vucht, urban renewal in relation to the surrounding landscape, city centre, river Aa of Weerijs, the making of a green-structure between the city centre and the natural land, Zaartbos, Zaartpark, Sonsbeekpark, Lunch in Mastbos forest, River Molenleij (construction of a natural river in an urban environment), educational education centre.
Monday, November 19
9 am/11pm : Presentations about Breda, by staff from the municipality, with the head of the planning department, Marc Okhuysen, department for environment, and L. Tummers, architect, planner.
11.30-13.00ÝÝ management committee meeting
report of the chairman
- report of the secretariat
- working groups organization and agendas
- short term scientific missions
13.00-14.30 lunch break
14.30- 18.00 working groups sessions, 1A,1B,2
- reports of the chairpersons
-work program organization ( case studies and states of art)
Tuesday, November 20
9.00-11.00ÝÝÝ working groups sessions, continuing
11.00- 13.00 management committee meeting
- synthesis of WG sessions: working program for the next 6 months
- other work to be done
- needs and propositions for other experts
- any other business
- next meetings
Munich, Department of Urban Planning and
06 June 2002 at Freising
20.00 - 21.00 Dr. Stephan Pauleit and Prof. Dr. Bettina Oppermann
Welcome of the participants ñ Introduction into the programme
07 June 2002 at TUM, Freising
Adoption of agenda
Sunday 09 June 2002: COST working day at the TUM, Freising
9.00:. Working groups: 3rd meeting, see separate agendas
Polytechnic University of Milan: Department ofÝ Architectural Design, Department ofÝ Building Environment Sciences and Technology , Faculty of Civil Architecture
Lombard Regional Park of
Sunday, 6 October
8.15 - 9.15: Management Committee (1st session)
- Welcome of Participants, B. Duhem chairman
- Presentation of new participants and delegates
- Approval of the agenda
- Approval of the minutes of the 5th Management Committee meeting in Freising and Munich
- Report of the chairman
9.15 -19.30: Plenary meetings of Working Groups 1A,1B,2
Case study Milan: field trip from Milan to Ticino Park
The regional and municipal level of green structures planning in Milan with presentation by: prof. Antonio Acuto (Polytechnic University of Milano), arch. Luciano Saino (former President of Park of Ticino), prof. Maurizio Maggioni (President of Park of Ticino),Ý dott. Dario Furlanetto (biologist and Director of Park of Ticino) , arch. Gianluca Barone (Municipality of Abbiategrasso), prof. Sandro Rossi (Polytechnic University of Milano), Enzo Spialtini (Municipality of Vigevano ñ Urban Planning Dep.)
Monday , 7 October 2002
Faculty of Civil Architecture, Via Durando 10 - Milan
9.00-12.30: Seminar ìThe green structuresÝ in Milan and Padanian area: history and projectî (Plenary meetings of MC and Working Groups 1A, 1B, 2)
- arch. Alberto Tenconi (Lombardy Region planning agency),
The experience of the Lombardy Parks and their role in the planning of Milan area
- arch. Luciano Saino (former president of Lombard Regional Park of Ticino Valley)
Management of a park in an area ofÝ metropolitan development
- prof. Roberto Gambino (Polytechnic University of Turin Department of Urban Planning),
Project Po and Project Ticino
- dott. Dario Furlanetto (Director of Park of Ticino), The role of fluvial parks in the maintenance and implementation of biodiversity in the Padanian area
- prof. Giovanni ScudoÝ (Politechnic University of Milan, Department of Building Environment Sciences and Technology),
Design for comfort in urban green space
12.30 -14.00 : lunch break
14.00-15.30 : Management Committee (2nd session)
- Report from the Secretariat (I. Samaras)
- Budget planning 2002
- STSM status, application (B. Duhem, P. Schildwacht)
- Publications, annual report (B. Duhem)
15.30-18.30 : WGs
Tuesday , 8 October 2002
Faculty of Civil Architecture, Via Durando 10 - Milan
9.15 - 12.00 : WGs parallel meetings
12.00 -13.30 :Management Committee (3rd session)
- Evaluation and monitoring (J. Laravoire, B. Duhem)
- Request for new members (B. Duhem)
- Non-COST participation (I. Samaras)
- Website news (A. Beer)
- Progress report of WGs
- Long term planning (B. Duhem)
- Time and place of next meetings
- Any other Business
3. Thematic papers
issues -case studies
3.2. Human issues