Working Group 1A - Comparison of Case Studies

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Ceské Budejovice

Comparison of case studies in relation to biodiversity

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Case study Ceské Budejovice - Draft 1

How should urban ecology inform greenstructure planning?

Case of the town Ceské Budejovice, CR.

Irena Hanousková, Jaroslav Bohá, Miroslav Gottlieb, Roman Keclík, Anna Lep_ová, Bo_ena _erá

 

Aim of the study

This report introduces the town of Ceské Budejovice (Czech Republic), i.e. the town of COST C11 case study.

The report formulates preliminary answers to five questions stated by coordinator of Ecological group C11a. They are:

1. How have natural and cultural features influenced the development of green structure in the urban environment?

2. What does this green structure mean for biodiversity, environmental services, and management of flows?

3. How are the character and functions of green structure considered in land use/ landscape planning? How are the character and functions been managed to meet ecological and environmental goals?

4. What is presently recorded about ecology in the case study area, by whom, and how?

5. How have ecological goals been set out to influence the planning,

6. Is there any evidence that these goals have effectively influenced the planning processes within the study area?

How have the ecological goals been set out by our team is shortly introduced at the end of the report.

 

_eské Bud_jovice (Czech Republic). Town introduction.

 

The town _eské Bud_jovice is situated in the south of Bohemia. It was established as an important centre of royal power versus the expanding influence of local nobility. Its foundation is dated back to 1265 and was situated to confluence of Vltava and Mal_e rivers. The historical town pattern, with regular central square, rectangular street network and fortification belongs to the architecture-tops of middle-ages urbanism.

This middle-ages town had four thousands inhabitant and belonged to the largest towns of Czech Kingdom. The town remained closed in fortifications and had several gardens and backyards dispersed in the suburbia.

The town soon became a centre of trade and production with growing importance for surroundings. Salt trade, fishpond management and bear-cooking are usually pointed out as important in16th century. In the same century, the town importance grew up with silver mining in nearby village Rudolfov. Town-hall and _erná v__ tower were built and the town received its renaissance face.

More than one half of the town was destroyed during a fire in 1641 and recovery took several decennia.

Baroque enriched the town by religious objects and also the Samsonova ka_na fountain, the later town symbol, was built.

During Theresian reforms the town became a region's capital (1751). In 1785 a bishopric was established. To the cultural importance contributed Piarist monastic order, that provided education in Latin gymnasium. The town theatre was founded; philosophical institute and catholic seminary were established.

Industrialization supported the town development during the 19th century. The most important events dated to the century were: building of the first horse-drawn railway in continental Europe that connected _. Bud_jovice with Linz (1825-1832), construction of two breweries (Ceské Budejovice et Samson at the date) and several factories. The transportation between South-North was supported by water navigation and facilitated industrial and commercial development. Bankmarch and ditches were constructed to protect the town against regular flooding (Vrchlického náb_e_í bankmarch, Zlatá stoka ditch).

The town grew to South Bohemian economic and cultural metropolis during the 20th century. After World War II the town historical centre was announced a protected monument zone for its values.

Built area was extended during last three decennia: several satellites of panel blocks of flats, construction of new housing colonies on agricultural land near former four villages that merged in the town, new residential zones were projected in two more villages and several other areas. In town outskirts new supermarkets and commercial centres were built, often on agricultural land, in the nineties. The town invested to construction of new bridge across the Vltava river (1998) at the site of the old bridge.

In the second half of the 20th century the town expanded to neighbourhoods in accordance to urbanization concepts applied in CR. The town district incorporates areas of surrounding villages at the date, including their greenness.

At the date, there is nearly 100 000 inhabitants and nearly _ of them are employed in industry.

In the town district, the landscape and town greenness emphasize representative features of South-Bohemian cultural landscape. Greenness on elevated suburban areas represents an important element of the town panorama in visual area perception.

 

How have natural and cultural features influenced the development of green structure in the urban environment?

Natural background, properties and development of green structures

The town is situated in a landscape that is formed by alluvial plain of Vltava and Mal_e rivers in basin _eskobud_jovická pánev, near important geomorphologic elevation - threshold Li_ovsk_ práh.

Natural dominant of the area is forest biocentre Pansk_ les at the South.

Four important natural units, denominated as bioregions according to applied classification (see Culek et al., 1996), meet near this Pansk_ les , i.e. bioregions _eskobud_jovick_, T_ebo_sk_, _eskokrumlovsk_ and Bechy_sk_ (EGIS, 2002). Their boundaries between the bioregions were identified at the foothills of slopes and margins of Jiho_eská pánev basin. In the town district, the border is indicated by remarkable changing angles of slopes.

In the town district, the landscape and town greenness emphasize representative features of south-bohemian cultural landscape.

The urbanistic conception of the town follows the old town composition, which was distinctly marked out to surrounding nature.

The town is situated on the confluence of the Vltava and Mal_e rivers. Alluvial flood plain of Vltava river was an important imperative to architecture composition of rivers` right bank. The rectangular street network of historical centre is accommodated to the soft lines of rivers Vltava and Mal_e confluence (Master Plan, 2000).

 

Cultural features

 

The cultural impact on the urban environment and its development might be interpreted in the range of external context of Europe, state and local conditions since the year 1250.

The substitution of nature control by cultural forms of management is remarkable and cultural features on town vegetation might be temporarily larger or equal to the control of natural factors.

The town vegetation was influenced in substantial ways by forms of management, species utilization, land-use forms, and structure of vegetation units at the area.

The conceptual ways, i.e. whether greenness has to reflect the „truth of nature" or architectonic, aesthetic and similar concepts, also have important impact on applications and resulting greenness perception (see and cf. Diagr. 1.). We elaborated a diagram of shifts of changing needs and demands about (of) vegetation roles by users along their trajectory (Supply. No. 1) to find several aspects for future discussion.

The diagram indicates important shifts of vegetation roles in the area, where the town district of _eské Bud_jovice is situated. Three selected phases of man-nature interaction indicate, that the settlement greenness was impacted by invisible paradigms of culture of particular historical conditions (see phases I.-III.). The vegetation roles develop during the historical periods in range from hidden precondition that „vegetation satisfies fundamental needs" to extreme opinion that vegetation is just necessary for particular beauty or can be substituted by manufactured synthetic flowers.

 

Resulting structure of greenness at the district of the town of _eské Bud_jovice

 

At the date, the greenness of the town district is linked to high diversity of natural and former historical conditions of town development, events, forms of management manifested themselves at different scales in landscape is formed on wide environmental and management gradient of habitat properties, particular segments segments with particular roles, that merged in the town district with areas of former surrounding villages.

We use the greenness structure classification that was applied in Master Plan (ÚPnM, 2000), to introduce the general range of greenness forms.

The classes are as follows at the date:

Vegetation structures of town status (pattern), floorscape vegetation structures, green wedges, composition axes of greenness system.

- Vegetation structures of town pattern are composed from parks and areas with park forms, historical gardens and cultural relicts of garden art.

- Floorscape vegetation structures are composed from vegetation of public sites, that are under other principal forms of management roles and arrangement than for green structures only

- Green wedges represent areas, that have not urban built-up surface, e.g. urban and landscape greenness, water bodies, forest and agricultural land; with buildings important for land-use, including recreational chalets, weekend cottages, gardens, etc. Penetrability for walkers, bikers (cycling), and horse riding is important wedges property.

- Composition axes of greenness system are considered as backbones of landscape development. Primary and secondary axes are denominated according to the axis importance at the town district in vegetation network. The most important axes represent Vltava and Mal_e rivers.

- Alleys, grown trees along the communications, with corresponding to character and role of residences, open areas Avenues and tree-lined streets with grown-up trees are considered also as composition axes, when they meet criteria of species and their roles in particular habitats.

 

Composition axis of town greenness

The most important composition axes of town greenness system are result of long-term adaptation between cultural and natural controlling factors in the town district.

- „Ml_nská osa". The axis represents urban biocorridor with recreation, town pattern and floorscape roles of vegetation. The axes represents sites: _erven_ dv_r / Mladé, Vrchlického náb_e_í, Ml_nská stoka a Na Sadech, Vltava / Dlouh_ most.

- „Dobrovodská osa". The axis represent natural or urban biocorridor structures along small natural and artificial watersheds. The biocorridor continues near communication and along Vltava river corridor of hyper regional importance. The axes represents sites: Dobrovodsk_ potok, Dobrovodská stoka, „Zánádra_ní", Stará _eka, Vltava.

- „_vábská osa". The axis connects park, pondy area with the role of regional biocenter, biochora of warm and wet terrain depressions, continues across suburban forests with the role of local biocentres and includes large pond. The axes represents sites: Stromovka, Vrbenské rybníky, Máj, Zavadilka, Velk_ Vávrovsk_. Several sites are under particular legal protection.

Subsidiary (lateral) vegetation axes of the town are as follows:

- „Vrátecká osa". The axis represents a green chain of urbanistic landscape components with local importance. Highway is considered as a barrier.

 

- central park „Husova kolonie" and proposal of urban biocorridor connecting the park with stream Rudolfovsk_, ponds, park and stream Dobrovodsk_

- „Rudolfovská osa". The axis is formed by vegetation that facilitates connection of sites regional biocenters Hlincova hora and _ertík at the south-east of the town with nature and recreational roles.

- „Hod_jovická osa". The axis connects greenness of the river Mal_e, hilly country and Dobrovodsk_ stream. The axes originate at newly proposed regional biocentre T__ u _pa_k_ pool, benefits from revitalization of stream Hod_jovick_ and completes the large green belt of the town.

 

The habitats that were included to the backbone of town greenness of the district of _eské Bud_jovice (according to Master Plan / ÚPnM / of the town, 2000) are indicated in boxes above. Prevalence of habitat categories, such as river bed, ponds, streams, drainage ditch, communication indicate, that that the greenness is situated in the less productive areas, areas where some form of barrier for further development or in the form of particular management occur.

Additional notice: Railway corridor has high ecological importance for urban greenness. In Master plan of _eské Bud_jovice it is not considered between important greenness axes.

 

 

What does this green structure mean for biodiversity, environmental services, and management of flows?

 

What does the green structure mean for biodiversity?

 

The (town) green structure means the essential environment for biodiversity. Selected aspects of different values for area planning or landscape ecology are pointed out:

- It provides great number of habitats of different environmental value.

- Long-term unified management of several-species plantations is linked to communities unification.

- Long-term unified management of several-species communities is linked to high risk under changing environmental conditions.

- Green structures provide number of plant species. The number reflects habitat and species properties and behavior. The number reflects also the barriers and/or support of species distribution originated under cultural forms of management. (see Supply. No. 2)

- Number of insect species might be many-fold higher, than the number of plants species. (see Supply. No. 2)

- Green structures represent number of food chains and their quality. The diversity of food chains develops along the gradient of town streetfloor, central parks and seminatural areas under nature protection.

ß In general, in the central park, the food pyramid is reduced to links between (primary) producers, herbivores and insectivores. The number of decomposers is severely reduced, e.g., by regular removing litter / dead biomass, or even by controlled microbial communities of artificial garden substrates.

ß The food chains developing under the alternative of the nature control represent (primary) producers &endash; herbivores, including large herbivores, such as deer, goose - carnivores at the top of food pyramid.

ß The quality of food chains might be harmful for an area user that might be regularly or occasionally involved in food chains of urban environment.

The maintenance and support of diversity along habitat gradients and management forms are the most important pre-conditions to maintenance of high biodiversity in the greenness of town district.

 

What does the green structure mean for environmental services?

Environmental services at the town district of _eské Bud_jovice are directly or indirectly controlled by the administration of the statutory town. The administration control and responsibility is framed by legal instruments; the selected most important rules are mentioned in this report.

The management of the town greenery is provided by commercial firms that receive approval when they win a public competition (for list of firms see www address Statutory Town, 2002).

The services are subjected to particular interactions, such as:

- Sanitary care about trees, reduction the risk of impact of harmful trees on area users and constructions

- New plantations, new species introduction in new or old habitats

- Biomass management according to working schedule, such as:

ß mowing the grass, spring and autumn raking of grass and leaves, weed removal from new plantings, forming the shapes of shrubs, new plantations introduction, removal of destroyed or harmful trees or their branches in public parks

ß cutting the grass, raking of grass and leaves, weed removal from new plantings, forming the shapes of shrubs, progressive rejuvenation of shrubs, new plantations introduction, removal of destroyed or harmful trees or their branches, inorganic or organic fertilization, digging, irrigation, blossom removal, winter cover in central parks

- Specialized (environmental) services are subjected to particular interactions in areas under protection. They provided services such as:

ß sanitary care about old trees, particularly two or three hundred year old oaks underlining cultural character of south-bohemian landscape

ß arrangement of information tables to facilitate users` orientation along nature trails in small reservations

ß building seats, pavements along local communications

ß providing monitoring

ß providing support to large invertebrates in winter to facilitate their survival and others.

- Forms of garden green structures, their management and control remains, according the law, on responsibility of property owners and practically lays on opinion of individual habitat users.

Special issue diversification: The management principles of diversification can be supported by regulation plans and under their impacts by Generally Binding Regulation. The rules have to be diversified according to the important forms of green structures. In general,

- there the rules of species management under common and particular nature protection are developed.

- There are not preliminary rules, what species might be introduced to the town habitats.

- Allien/invasive species represent particular important issue; the species control is announced in bylaws of the town when necessary.

 

 

What does the green structure mean for management of flows?

 

In recommended strategies of water flows management, the priorities received habitat protection against erosion and flooding before other approaches (_indlar, 2000; Marhoun et al., 2000). Vegetation management is considered as an instrument for erosion decrease and control, enforcement the bankmarch and river bottom. In this way, new forms of flow management are explored and elaborated, according to Programme of Revitalization of River Systems (seeUsnesení vlády, 1992). In area planning, the vegetation categories are applied as categories of the System of Ecological Network Stability, i.e. biocorridors, biocentres in their hierarchical methodology. In research and search for new ways on vegetation and flow management, high number of specialized classifications is applied yet in CR, Europe, US, according to author's opinion and research issues and aims (see, e.g., Hanousková, 2001).

 

The green structures / green axes in management of flows:

- Grown trees and shrubs represent a risk of watering impacts increase. They increase the risk of damaging the constructions along the flow by debris and their accumulation.

- Vegetation along water flows is managed to decrease the (severe) flood impacts in the area and downstream at minimum possible level

- Management of flows according to water quality might have alternative consequences. E.g., the water self-purification occurs generally during biomass production and water pollution after pollution by debris and decomposition. The (vegetation) management in zones of protection of water resource I-III is developed.

- There are many other forms of flows in ecological interpretation. Wild organisms have to be considered individually and in communities or as larger units and component of green structures. The forms of flows might be found between following entities: (wild) organisms, environment as source of food /energy, shelters, sources for food chains, source of health condition, source of additional energy, barriers, conduit for migration atc.

- Green structures make possible to concentrate activities of leisure time to their areas. They provide high quality of environment for tennis courts, bikeways, swimming pools, water sports, etc. and therefore for flows of area users.

- The flows of biomass are important (see services above). The biomass might be accumulated at dumping ground and used for efficient dump recultivation or it can be widespread and utilized by small users in suburban areas, gardens, etc.

 

 

How have ecological goals been set out to influence the planning?

 

The undesired development of environment (see Supply. No. 1), initiated the development of better instruments for various levels of state organization to stop the non-desired changes.

State administrative received new instruments of nature protection and improved branch instruments in water and waste managements, protection of air quality, health, nature, agricultural and forest land and others.

The ecological goals have been set out to influence the planning in several important ways. They were introduced to legal instruments or their concepts

- Planning of structures and their systems in space. Area planning was and still is considered as an efficient way to sustainable development. (see Supply. No. 5):

- Landscape Master plan. Area has its own predetermination.

- Master Document of the Town (scale 1:10 000, for area users 1:15 000). Area has its own predetermination.

- Urbanistic Study (Concept)

- Area System of Ecological Stability (ÚSES). In CR the system was elaborated and legally established in nineties of the 20th century. Biocentres, biocorridors, interactive elements in hierarchical composition of importance at European, regional and local levels are the fundamental units of landscape network and of newly re-introduced system of greenness in landscape space (see Míchal et al., 1991; AOPK _R). At the date, the project are finished for entire area of Czech Republic.

- System NATURA 2000 is the latest instrument aimed for applications after 2004

- The instruments for area planning have many positives, i.e. the alternative land-use forms might be separated to individual segments, but also weakness, e.g., the area planning cannot use the category „genius loci" (see, eg., Sala_ová, 1999)

- Regulative of environmental quality embedded by laws and edicts

- No. 114 / 1991 on Nature Conservation

- Law No. 17 / 1991 on Environment. It denominates basic concepts, such as ecosystem, ecological stability, acceptable area load, sustainable development, natural resources, pollution and waste of the environment, environment protection and ecological damages. The law formulates fundamental principles and duties of juridical and physical persons in protection and quality increase of the environment and in utilization of natural resources.

- Law No. 244 / 1992 on Impact Assessment on the Environment (EIA). The law regulates assessment of the impacts of new constructions, their changes and changes of use, technologies, applications, development conceptions and programmes and their impacts on the environment. It designates bodies of state administration concerned to assess the impacts on the environment. Experts and civil initiatives might participate in evaluation procedure and express their views.

- The complex method of hyper regional, regional and local conception of protection and revitalization of watershed basins and river network is developed under the conception of Information Geographical System managed and supported by Ministery of the Environment of CR (see EGIS, 2000).

- The call for involving ecology in close specializations initiated also structural changes of educational institutions. In last years, e.g., the Department and Laboratory of Applied Ecology were established at the University of South Bohemia under the support of Ministery of Education, Youth and Sports of the CR.

 

 

How have ecological goals been set out by us?

 

See proposal of project „Organisms with harmful effects for area users in green structures of urban areas. Consequences in planning and management". (Supply. No. 3):

 

 

What is presently recorded about ecology in the case study area, by whom, and how?

 

 

There were elaborated many studies, in wide range of subjects, methodologies and forms of publication. Examples of them are following:

- University specialist, particularly students are often involved at the research when they elaborate diploma thesis. Young specialist of University of South Bohemia are interested now in the pond area Vrbenské rybníky and in bird populations (see Brandl et al., Biological Faculty, _eské Bud_jovice). There is a student project that might result to land-use proposal of abandoned military training area in the suburban between areas Máj and Vltava. The cooperation with the town administration started at the University.

- The results of the studies and projects important for urban issues are offered to the town authorities, the reports are available at faculties in University library. There are attempts to establish state database of ecologically subjected diploma thesis.

- The specialized journal of crosscutting between ecology and town was not printed until now in Czech language. The crosscutting are occasionally published in different journals (article from ILE AS CR - see, e.g., T__itel et al., 2001).

- The GIS M_P (see GIS M_P, 2000) is subjected to develop links between isolated approaches to landscape entities to facilitate complex conceptions, assessments. Information servers, GIS technologies and interactive presentations had been rapidly developed at district and state levels in last years (see above). The feed back to management of green structures in town districts might be expected later. At the date, the conception is based on evaluation of intensity of anthropogenic load of the landscape or important water flow, capability of surface water infiltration, hydrogeological conditions, area protection, and other additional issues. The GIS uses the categories and subjected information layers from proved methodologies and their classifications, such as Landscape Network of Ecological Stability (ÚSES), vegetation information layers based on systems of NATURA 2000, information based on classification system developed by central European phytocoenological school, and others. In 1992 the Programme of Revitalization of River System was adopted by government act No. 373. The Programme is subjected to recovery, stabilization and care about water regimen of the landscape. The Programme development originated at the studies of Labe river watershed and continues parallel to development of State Information System for River Network.

 

Is there any evidence that these goals have effectively influenced the planning processes within the study area?

 

In the district of the town _eské Bud_jovice, the planning processes were effectively influenced by ecological goals transformed to the legal instruments developed for the planning. The instruments are general at state level of importance. The projects of Network of Landscape Systems of Ecological Stability (ÚSES), Environment Impact Assessment procedures, are essential.

 

 

Acknowledgements: The authors thank to external consultants - Marie Cap_rková (Council of the Town of _eské Bud_jovice), Zde_ka N_mcová (Council of the Town of _eské Bud_jovice), Marie Ka_parová (_eské Bud_jovice) - for important information used in preparing the preliminary draft. The authors thank to Radka Pe_ková and Martin _afránek for technical assistance.

 

References

 

Bohá_, J. et al. (1995): The use of biomonitoring for ecological planning and ecological policy in agricultural settlements. In: Munawar M. et al. (eds.) Bioindicators of environmental health. Ecovision World Monograph Series, SPB Acad. Publ., Amsterdam: 155-163.

Bohá_, J. (1999): Staphylinid beetles as bioindicators. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 74: 357-372.

Culek, M. (Ed.) et al. (1996): Biogeografické _len_ní _eské republiky.- Enigma, Praha: 347 p. [In Czech]

Chadt, J. E. (1913): D_jiny les_ a lesnictví v _echách, na Morav_ a ve Slezsku.- Písek, tiskem Theodora Kopeckého: 1122 p. [In Czech]

EGIS (2002): Landscape network of ecological stability in settlement plans. Guide of methods. (Metodika zapracování ÚSES do územních plán_ obcí). [In Czech. http://www.egis.cz/uses/ram1.htm]

Forman, R.T.T., Godron, M. (1986): Landscape ecology.- John Willey and Sons, New York: 620 p.

Hanousková, I., O'Sullivan, P. E., Witkowski, Z. (1999): Perspective in sustainable land-use of marginal areas, land abandonment and restoration. In Farina, A. et al. (eds.): New tasks for ecologists after Rio 1992.- Backhuys Publishers of Leiden.

Hanousková, I. (2001): Water in landscape. Glossary of selected terms and comments. (Voda v krajin_. V_klad, komentá_e a volné charakteristiky k vybran_m termín_m a ustálen_m slovním spojením). _eské Bud_jovice: 41 p. [Elaborated for Project „Control of water quality in valley basins" /"_ízení kvality vody v údolních nádr_ích"), HBÚ AV _R, ÚEK AV _R, _eské Bud_jovice. Unpublished. In Czech]

Kala_, P., Svoboda, L. (1998): Heavy metals in edible mushrooms.- Czech J. of Food Sci., 16: 110-116. (A review).

Lambl, J. B., _emli_ka, F., Hiller, F. (1891): P_ísp_vky ku d_jinám zem_d_lství v království _eském za století 1791-1891.- nákladem Zem_d_lské rady království _eského, Praha: 309 p. [In Czech]

Lep_ová, A., Mejst_ík, V. (1988): Accumulation of trace elements in the fruiting bodies of macrofungi in the Kru_né hory Mountains, Czechoslovakia.- Sci. Tot. Environm., 76: 117-128.

Lep_ová, A., Král, R. (1988): Lead and cadmium in fruiting bodies of macrofungi in the vicinity of a lead smelter. Sci. Tot. Environm., 76: 129-138. Mejst_ík V. and A. Lep_ová (1993): Applicability of fungi to the monitoring of environmental pollution by heavy metals. In: Markert, B. (ed.): Plants as biomonitors. VCH, Weinheim, Germany.

Mezera, A., Bene_, S., Fér, F., Hron, F., Kolá_, O., Kubín, J., Nováková, E., Pokorn_, J., _tolc, J., Vidláková, O. (1979): Tvorba a ochrana krajiny.- Státní zem_d_lské nakladatelství, Praha: 476 p. [In Czech]

Míchal, I., Ambros, Z., Bínová, L., Bu_ek, A.., Hudec, K., Kolá_ová, D., Kyn_l, M., Löw, J., Mack_, J. (1991): Územní zabezpe_ování ekologické stability. Teorie a praxe.- Ministerstvo _ivotního prost_edí, Praha: 150 p. [In Czech]

Odum, E. P. (1983): Ekologija.- Mir, Moskva: 328+386 p. [2nd edition, In Russia translation, 1986]

Pauleit, Stephan (2002): How shoud urban ecology inform greenstructure planning? (draft of report)

Sala_ová, A. (1999): Landscape and crisis of area planning. Ústav zahradní a krajinné architektury, B_eclav. [In Czech. Seminar on Sustainable Development of Rural Space, EKOSTYL, ILE AS CR, 19.3.1999, V_stavi_t_, _eské Bud_jovice]

T__itel, J., Ku_ová, D., Barto_, M. (2001): Necessity of nature element sin the urban environment. Case study of the town Tábor. (Pot_eba p_írodních prvk_ v prost_edí m_sta. P_ípadová studie m_sta Tábor.).- _ivotné prostredie, 35 (4), Bratislava: 195-198.

Va_k_, Z. (1995): De oeconomia suburbana.- Vesmír, 74 (6), Praha: p. 313-315. [In Czech]

Usnesení vlády (1992): Usnesení vlády _. 373 pro program Revitalizace _í_ní sít_. [In Czech]

Zákon _eské národní rady o pozemkov_ch úpravách a pozemkov_ch ú_adech ze dne 21. _ervna 1991. Sbírka zákon_ _. 283 a 284/1991.

 

Project example:

Fishpond dam phenomenon: oak alleys as a specific biotope. (Fenomén rybni_ních hrází: dubové aleje jako specifick_ biotop). Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports CR, 395/98, 1997-1998. Coordinator: Brandl, Z., Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of South Bohemia, _eské Bud_jovice. ILE responsible: Lep_ová, A.

 

 

 

WWW pages:

AOPK _R: Landscape Network of Ecological Stability. (ÚSES. Územní systém ekologické stability. ) [In Czech; http://www.nature.cz/uses_cz.htm; 2002]

Statutory Town of _eské Bud_jovice: Rozd_lení rajon_ odd_lení správy ve_ejné zelen_.- [In Czech; information on firms providing greenery management at the date; http://www.c-budejovice.cz/asputil/stranka.asp?TYP_STR=69; 23.5.2002]

COST Action C11: Green structures and urban planning. Memorandum of Understanding. (http://www.map21ltd.com/COSTC11)

EGIS: Landscape Network of Ecological Stability. (ÚSES) [In Czech; Interactive map; http://www.egis.cz/hypermapa/Inet.asp?PROJ_ID=3301&BACK=../uses/default.htm, 2002]

GIS M_P (2000): Geographical Information System for Landscape Programmes of Ministery of Environment. (Geografick_ informa_ní systém pro krajinotvorné programy Ministerstva _ivotního prost_edí). [In Czech. http://www.env.cz/env.nsf/ochrana?OpenFrameSet. 4.6.2001]

Marhoun, K., Pet_í_ek, V., _indlar, M., Zuna, J., Zbo_ilová, H. (2000): Programme of Revitalization of River Systems. Tenders, elaboration, examination and utilization of the studies. (Zadávání, zpracování, posuzování a vyu_ívání studií programu revitalizace _í_ních systém_. Metodické doporu_ení). AOPK _R, Praha: 17 p. [In Czech. http://www.nature.cz/landscape_programs_prrs_metodology_cz.htm. 1.6.2002]

ÚPnM (2000): Master Plan of the town _eské Bud_jovice. [Interactive map; In Czech, http://www.c-budejovice.cz/mapa/vstup.asp?APP=UP; 23.5.2002]

MoU: Memorandum of Understanding for the implementation of a European Concerted Research

Action designated as COST Action C11 "Green Structures and Urban Planning" [http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/yki4/cost/c11mou.htm, 2002]

_indlar M. (2000): Strategy of water flows management. (Strategie pé_e o vodní toky). - B___. [In Czech. http://www.sindlar.cz/tema3/3-0001.html. 1.6.2002]

 

Supplement No. 1.

 

Cultural features that influenced the development of green structure in the urban environment

The importance of cultural impact on urban greeness indicate shift of vegetation roles during last millenia (see Diag.1):

- Early settlements (phase I) remained nearly always a component of nature until the beginning of agrarian revolution (see Va_k_, 1995).

- In Czech area, the town was established as a new element, that was strange to nature and closed itself to walls in the 12th &endash; 13th century (see Va_k_, 1995). The historical town (phase II) remained important representative for rural culture and its development for several next centuries.

- On the (s)holders of rural culture, the „town culture" developed and manifested itself as important during the second half of the 20th century at large scale (phase III) .

- The town culture of phase III and its particular approaches to the environment conditioned patterns of green structures in town centres and in a slip they impacted the village greeness by higher number of introduced species and new space composition. In seventies - eighties of the 20th century, the town forms of greeness was remarkable at large scale in villages. The forms were proved unsuficient during short experience, because they did not meet expectations and management customs of village inhabitants. (Notice: It is important to mention this way of vegetation development, because the village &endash; suburban - vegetation became a component of town greeness after merging villages in town.)

The diagram indicates, that several important vegetation roles develop as alternatives to others, continuously, along the development of modern forms of management. The alternatives reflect quite deep roots in instituting of alternative branches that were important for state economy. The alternatives substantially impacted particular roles of green structures in the town. In wider frame, the vegetation structures and quality develop as a response to the invisible pressure of branches intensification, agriculture, forestry, enlargement of technogenic surfaces and developemnt of decorative greeness in internal town environment.

Another additional impact of area occupation by branches was, that high number of the segments of (town) greenness (see diagram and cathegories of town composition axis) remain at habitats, that were:

- unfavourable or less favourable for other forms of land-use (wet meadows and forests)

- historically important large sites (central and established parks)

- historically established local forms of land-use (gardens)

- historically established ponds and ditches

- sites indicating material and energy flows (corridors along streams, rivers, roads, alleys, patches)

- accidental habitats

 

The resulting habitats have also to be considered in planning documentation.

In last century, an additional result of the processes, that manifested themselves at landscape scale, was remarkable segmentation, in which the particular activities received particular space in landscape during several stages of land reforms (in Czech area in seventies-eighties of 20th century). The particular roles of area were denominated if even the segments were abandoned of management (see, e.g., Hanousková et al., 1999). Vegetation received particular roles within delimited space under these driven forces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Following diagram is based on sources Chadt (1913), Lambl et al. (1891), Forman et Godron (1986), Mezera et al. (1979), Odum (1983), Va_k_ (1995). The historical forms of vegetation utilization were used to asses the vegetation roles in phases I and II. Assessment of phase III. expresses the authors' opinion.

? diagram

Supplement

 

Regional (territorial) planning

Principles

In complex and consistent, the area planning solves an use of a functional area, determines the principles of area organization and collaterally coordinates construction and other activities impacting the development of the area in time. It is a prerequisite to harmonization of natural, civilization and cultural values of the area, paying regard to environment and protection of soil, water and air components.

The area planning is embedded to landscape practice under law No. 50, as amended in No. 103/1990 Sb., No. 425/1990 Sb., No., 262/1992 Sb., No. 43/1994 Sb., No.19/1997 Sb., and No. 83/1998 Sb.)

Self-contained documents, such as Complex Land Reforms and Landscape Network of Ecological Stability plans merge in the documentation of planning studies.

Basic data of area planning

The data are subjected to elaboration or changes of documentation of planning studies, to area decisions, to monitoring of development and evaluation of possibilities in the future.

The basic data for area planning are:

Planning study. The study solves technical, urbanistic and architectonic conditions of territory (area) utilization.

Development plan. In detail, the plan solves individual issues of territorial development, i.e. development of settlements and landscape components.

Development forecast (land-development plan). The forecast examines the possibilities of future long-term development.

Area-technical documents. The documents are continuously completed collections of data subjected to area state and properties.

Documentation of planning studies

All documentation consists of text, tables and graphical parts. Graphics is elaborated in maps and in scale that is suitable to documentation form.

 

Master plan, Regional physical plan. The plan specifies an arrangement and limits of the area, delimits important subareas for future development, delimits the most important corridors, e.g. corridors delimited for transportation, technical infrastructure, Landscape Network of Ecological Stability and other issues of particular interest in the area.

The maps at scale 1:25 000 &endash; 1:200 000 are used for the plan elaboration.

 

Settlement plan. The plan is elaborated for entire settlement district, i.e. for all cadastral sub-areas in the settlement administrative area, or to several districts together in accordance of approving authorities.

The maps at scale 1:2 880 &endash; 1:10 000 are used for the plan elaboration.

Plan objectives:

- to determine urban conception

- solves acceptable, not acceptable and/or conditional utilization of areas and their arrangement

- determines the elementary area regulation/management/control

- delineates a border-line of built area at the date

- delineates the border-line of area, that is assigned to possible new constructions

 

Regulating plan. The plan is elaborated for settlement segment or entire area with explicitly determined area-technical and urban conditions.

The maps at scale 1:2 880 &endash; 1:10 000 are used for the plan elaboration.

Plan objectives:

- to delimit land-use of individual lots of land / parcels

- to determine regulative entities of areas and space arrangement

Map basic data for documentation elaboration

Maps and scales applied in documentation of planning studies:

Elemental maps of CR at scales: 1:100 000, 1:50 000, 1:25 000, 1:10 000. The maps are components of State map series and involve topography in colour resolution and hypsography in form contour curves (coordinate system S-JTSK, elevation system Bpv)

Elemental map derived at scale 1:5 000. The map involves topography and hypsography, differentiation of field-lots, description of culture / plantation.

Cadastral map at scales 1:2000, 1:2880. The map contains topography, differentiation of field-lots, description of culture / plantation, numbers of parcels of land. It does not contain hypsography. There are two forms of cadastral maps with different numbering reflecting two forms of property (KN and PK maps).

The State map series were transformed also to digitalized form and are ordinary utilized in state information systems, specialized GIS, etc. in applications and research.

Acquisition of planning studies documentation

Regional physical plan is provided by Regional Office.

Settlement and Regulating plans are provided by administration of settlement / town.

Every area planning documentation includes binding part that is component of Generally binding regulation. The binding part includes limits and regulative entities of land-use. Regulative entities specify also forms of functional area-use, i.e., percentage of area cover by constructions, roof inclination, etc. According to a functional use of green structures or other biological objects, the regulations involve the conditioning factors supporting the particular forms of the structures.

According to the laws, the greenery, patchiness, corridors, segments have to be included to all forms of Documentation of planning studies (see above). The Regulating plan is the most important instrument for local conditions, the Master plan for green structures in landscape dimension.

Selected issues of territorial planning and green structures

The territorial plan has always to include, according to the Law No. 114, following documentation:

- Landscape Network of Ecological Stability (ÚSES)

- Hyper regional ÚSES and buffer zones of hyper regional biocorridors; they are binding for Master and Settlement plans.

- Regional ÚSES; it is binding for Master and Settlement plans.

- Local ÚSES; binding for Settlement plan.

- Evaluation of impact of proposed solution on land resources in agriculture (agriculture soil resource; ZPF) and forest management (land determined to forest functions; PUFL).

Linking the steps to development and hearing of the territorial plan

1. Exploratory surveys and analysis of area stage to the date

1.1 Functional area use

In the procedures, following categories of green structures are considered:

- buffer forests with protective role, commercial and non-commercial forests, forest important for spa, recreation etc.

- ecological forest zonation

- wild vegetation areas

- perennial grassland

- zone of differentiated landscape management

- important landscape element (VKP) registered or listed in law

- important habitat or ecologically important area

- monumental tree

- site of endangered organisms

1.2. Drawing of controversies, i.e. graphical demonstration of the most important conflicts of interest and problems in the area, including outline of solutions.

1.3. Solution groups, i.e. text summaries of considered solutions

2. Specification. This step involves instructions for solutions of conflict and problem in the area, conditions definition of the area development and values protection.

2.1. Specification of proposal

2.2. Drawing of land-use limits:

- Expression of limits, those were included in administrative decisions and encoded rules. They are, e.g., buffer zones of technical infrastructure, building line, sanitary protection zones.

- Limits according to categories of landscape and nature protection, such as: National and Landscape Parks and their buffer zones, Landscape network of ecological stability (ÚSES), small areas under particular legal protection (MCHÚ, NRP, NPP, PR, PP)

- Limits according to the water management, i.e., protected areas of accumulation of underground or surface water (CHOPAV), water sources and their buffer zones, buffer zones of curative sources and mineral waters, areas determined to accumulation of surface water, boundaries of watersheds.

Consideration/reading involves attitudes of administration and neighbourhood settlements, commitments of incorporated organizations and inhabitants, approval of consideration.

 

3. Conception of proposal

The conception consists of:

- urbanistic proposal including town and public greenery, proposal of transportation and technical infrastructure, proposal of evaluation of land required from agriculture (ZPF) and forest management (PUFL)

- landscape forming

- proposal of protection and management of suburban landscape

- proposal of revitalization of devastated areas

- proposal of stream revitalization

- revitalization proposal or new biotope establishment

- prevention against floods

Consideration/reading of the concept involves issues according to phase 2. It involves the attitudes, commitments and arguments evaluation and proposal of agreements after the arguments.

 

4. General attitude = result of concept consideration = guide to proposal elaboration.

Consideration and approval of general attitude according to issues of phase 2 represent this step.

 

5. Proposal of Master plan.

This step represents consideration and approval of master plan proposal. Evaluation of attitudes, commitments, arguments and proposals of agreements after the arguments.

 

6. Generally binding regulation and binding compartments/elements of Master plan

In this step, the binding plan compartments are expressed as regulative entities involving binding rules, which limit, suppress or underline the area use or regulative entities at the area and principles of area arrangement.

Settlement plan involves boundary of built area and boundary of area that might be built in the future. The boundary is component of binding part of the plan.

The area involves urbanized and not urbanized subareas. In the plans, the nature and landscape protection issues are more important for suburban and non-urbanized areas. In town surrounding, the attention is given to neighbourhood of residential sites, to the transition of natural background in composition solutions between open landscape and built area. In the surrounding of small settlement, there the soft merger of built and natural area is more important. Small settlements have usually large areas of green structures with gardens of former village house-building. This form of vegetation represents substantial part of the settlement green structures and also important part of green structures of town district after merger of village to the town.

Working Group 1A - Comparison of Case Studies

Bibliography

May 01- notes - minutes

Oct 01

June 02

Oct 02

Warsaw

Vienna

Munich

Oslo

Belgium - benefits for people

Sheffield to do

Helsinki

 

Herning

Ceské Budejovice

Comparison of case studies in relation to biodiversity

UK - benefits of nature

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